Suinakalan li Sinampaitono


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This dictionary of Sinampaiton is a first, very rough, attempt at a Sinampaiton lexicon. Many entries have been deprecated, and some new words do not appear here.

Headwords appear in the order shown below, for the most part.

A B Mb Ch D Nd Dz Ndz E G Ng H I J Nj K Kr Nk Kh L Nl Ll M N O P Pr Mp Ph R S Sh T Nt Th Ts U V



-a (noun case adverbial.)

an (irregular stative vi.) be

aban lip; dual (two) lips

abastakan coward

abaste cowardice, timidity; cowardly, faint-hearted, timid

abere pluck, courage, bravado; plucky, courageous, brave, fearless

abon table (esp. for eating), counter, board

aborun sit at the table, go to dinner, take a meal, dine, feast, eat

aborumen see abuire 1.

aboruven diner, dinner guest, person at the table

abuire meal, feast, board, food, sustenance

adaphe whale; huge, gigantic, monstrous

ain not be; be absent or lacking or missing; (with -ikha) not have, lack; not be true, be untrue or false

aibakan see aibe 1.a.

aibe youngest (child), lastborn, newborn, baby; youngster, kid, tot, (little) squirt; youngest (animal), kid, foal, etc.; runt (of a litter); youngest, lastborn, newborn, runt; young, immature; puny, diminutive, little

aibere infancy, first years, youth; beginning(s)

aibon see aibe 1.b.

aidon multitude, myriad, thousand(s), million(s), swarm; multitude, throng, army, masses; (pl.) see aidon 1.; numerous, myriad, thousand, million, abundant, innumerable

aihun head, top, end, extremity (not of a person); top, end, uppermost, foremost

aiken bard, troubadour, minstrel, skald; bardic, skaldic, runic, lyric; wandering, roving, errant, itinerant

aikenon bardic ways, minstrelsy; (?) ; Bardic music; Bardic (language)

aikenorun speak or write or know Bardic (the Bardic language)

aikeenatan winnow, thresh

aikeene chaff; residue, refuse, debris; residual, left-over, unwanted

aikerun be a bard etc.; practice the art of minstrelsy; wander, roam, rove, ramble

aikhen increase, multiply, augment, add to

aikhean increase, multiply, grow, wax

aikhean increase, growth; increasing, growing, waxing

aikhemen see aikhen

aikhemun augmentation, addition; additive, augmentative, multiplicative

aikhen increase, growth

aimen lack, absence; untruth, falsehood; lacking, absent, missing; untrue, false

aisan (fortified) city; city (population)

aisaven aisan inhabitant

aistavan impossibility, the impossible; nonsense, fantasy, absurdity; impossible; fantastic, nonsensical, absurd

aitsakan fiend, vile or contemptible person

aitse worms, grubs; contemptible persons; vermicular; low, vile, contemptible

aitsere worm-eaten, wormy, maggotty, rundown, decrepit

aivo also, too, as well, in addition

aivon thin tasteless soup or broth; thinness; (of color) dullness, paleness; (of flavor) tastelessness, insipidness; (fig.) vapidity, inanity, jejunity; thin; dull, pale, colorless; tasteless, insipid; boring, vapid, inane, jejune

-aka adjectival animate

akaame (of either sex) wizard, sorceror, witch, magician; magic(al), sorcerous

akaamere magic, wizardry, witchcraft, sorcery

aku (dialectal)see eku

akuun yearn, (with -una) want, desire. [Akuunge dziun eteruna 'I want or desire three bottles']

akuumen desire, yearning

akhave (the) South; southern

akhe snake, serpent; snaky, serpentine; sinuous, tortuous, meandering, winding

alain (dark) blue(ness); (dark) blue, indigo, ultramarine, purple; (dark) bluish, purplish

alekhe berries

aleme noose, snare, trap; false, treacherous, guileful, deceptive

alematan snare, ensnare, trap, catch

aliurarun play the harp or lyre

aliuraruven harpist, lyrist, harp or lyre player

aliurarumen harpistry, harp or lyre playing

aliure harp, lyre

aliurin (piece of) music for the harp or lyre

alon use, make use of, employ, wield, apply

alon use, usage

alonjen misuse, abuse

alonjemun see alonjiere 2.

alonjiere misuse, abuse, spite, malice; abusive, spiteful, malicious

aluere use, usefulness, benefit, value, worth; useful, effective, helpful, worthwhile; ready, handy

aman (past def. omon) cross (over), traverse, go or pass over or through

amaben pass, passage, corridor, aisle, channel

amaun move, budge, stir

amaute move, movement, motion

ambaathan colony

ambaathavatan colonize

amin perceive, discern, make out, detect, tell, apprehend, understand, comprehend, know, see, sense

amimen perception, discernment, understanding, comprehension

amimun perceptive, discerning, understanding, knowing

ammae mother, mom; motherly, maternal

amparre kitchen; culinary

amunan swell, bulge, expand, inflate; (mbondo etc.) billow, surge, swell, roll

amunamen swelling, distension, bulging, expansion, inflation; swell, surge, tide, waves, surf; swollen, distended, bulging, inflated; flooded

amunate bulge; billow, surge, swell, wave

-an (dual sfx. (largely lex.)) -(e)s

anavon tease, mock, razz, make fun of, poke fun at, taunt, ridicule, deride

anavomen teasing, mockery, razzing, ridicule, derision

anavomun teasing, mocking, derisive

anavote gibe, wisecrack, jeer, taunt

ande time, instance, occasion, event; four times, on four occasions.; this time, on this occasion. ; if ever, if perhaps; once, at one time; one-time, former(ly)

andan occur, happen, take place

anden raise, lift, elevate, heighten, erect

andean rise, stand up; grow

andean rising; growth; rising, (up)sloping; growing

angan (past def. angavon) curdle, clabber, coagulate, clot, congeal, jell

angan curd(s), clabber, clot(ting), gel; curdled, clotted, congealed; drunk

ange auk; oaf

anie tricks, deceits; false, fake, pseudo-

aniere trickery, deceit; tricky, deceitful

aniatan trick, deceive, cheat, betray

aanite (light) blue(ness), azure; (poetic) sky; (light) blue, azure, sky blue, cerulean; (light) bluish

ankane silver; (made of) silver; silvery

ankanere silver luster or sheen; silvery

ankanin piece of silver, silver coin

anlon pig, swine; distasteful person; indecent or obscene or lecherous person; porcine, swinish; indecent, obscene, lecherous

anloron copulate (esp. like pigs), screw, fuck

-anto about, concerning

anthan go back, recede, retreat, withdraw, go away, leave; ebb, wane, dwindle; renounce, refuse, reject; abandon, forsake, go back on (a promise etc.); abjure, forswear, quit, cease

apikhe awl, auger

apraape curse, malediction, bane, hex, doom

apraapatan (past def. apraapoton) curse, damn, hex, doom

aphan fill; fulfill, complete, finish, conclude

aphavan fill, become full; be fulfilled or concluded or finished, finish, conclude

aralle sibling, sister, brother; (similar relations) sister-in-law, brother-in-law; half-sister, half-brother; cousin; mate; brotherly, sisterly, fraternal, sororal; related; fellow, mated, twin, matching; cousin etc., (unrelated persons) comrade, mate, sister, brother

aran sit, be seated

arateede session, council

aradze seat, chair

araue barren tree or plant; barren woman, infertile woman or (rare) man; barren, infertile

arauere barren land(s), desert, wilderness

aren godfather, patron

areon set, put, place

aridze crown

aridzatan crown, coronate

aropie pillar, column

arukan advise, counsel, direct; (with -una) suggest, recommend, advocate

arukaven advisor, counsellor

arukamen advice, counsel, direction

eotarukamen bad advice, bad or evil counsel

kearukan forewarn

suarukan misguide, deceive

aksore whole, entire

asme spells, charms; strange, bizarre, weird

asuite only, sole

ashon juice

ashuan geese (male or female); drunkards, sots; fools, buffoons; drunk, silly, loony, ridiculous

ashuanunge (female) geese

ashuadzine ganders

atepren shards, potsherds; trifling, petty, paltry, pitiful, worthless, useless

athen joy, delight; gladdening, happy, cheery

athiere joyful, cheerful, happy

athen see; know, understand

athemen sight, vision; knowing, understanding

atsan (legend) poem, epic

atsaven (epic) poet

atse voice; speech, manner of speaking, articulation, accent

aru and; plus; even; a long boat; a boat which is (furthermore) long; even now

aujen chuck-a-luck, raffle (game with three dice)

aukin watch, keep watch, be watchful or careful, take care

aukiere watchful, careful, vigilant

aukimen watchfulness, vigilance, care, heed, carefulness

aulun open space; spacious, ample; open, vacant, unoccupied, free, uninhabited

auluere (the) open, open air; out-of-doors, outdoors, outside; open-air; outdoor, outside


aupe nail, bolt, pin, peg

aupatan nail, bolt, affix with nail(s) etc.

aute message, dispatch, (piece of) news

autaven messenger

autatan (past def. autoton) send a message or news to, inform

eotaute (message of) bad news, ill tidings

avatse drum, tom-tom, timbrel, tabor

avatsan drum, play (the) drum(s) etc.

avatsaven drummer

avivan lurk, skulk; sneak, steal, slink, creep; furtively, surreptitiously, stealthily, secretly

avonde wax; nonsense, stuff; old news or story or song, cliche, platitude, ennui, tedium

saravonde utter nonsense, balderdash, rubbish; meaningless, inane, trite, boring, dull, banal, tedious

avondere waxy; see saravonde

avun woman; female; feminine

adzare (poetic rare) nocturnal

adzian (past def. odzion) boil, bubble


adzune finger, digit; toe

adzunuuse little finger, pinkie

keadzune forefinger, index finger


baan knife

-baba should, ought to, have to

babu papa, daddy, dad

bain feel (emotion)

baichun shout, cry (out), call (out)

baimen emotion(s), feeling(s)

baken defecate

baken (human) feces

balan skirt

ballon clay

bame row

bamatan (past def. bamoton) arrange

sobamatan (past def. sobamoton) disarrange, disorder, unsettle

-bandan (past def. -bondon) go (verb)-ing

banien cherish

banjen moonshine, hooch, homebrew

bantan bench

bante unit of msmt., ca. 3.5 lbs

baute hedge

badzan (past def. bodzon) pluck, snatch, seize

badzavare terrible or frightful thing or event; terror, panic; terrible, frightful, terrifying

be (prevb.) then ((future)); when, as, while

be (1 and 2 pl. disjunctive nucleus.)

ben (past def. benon)give

bengane (interrog. adverb future) when?

beben wool

beje sinew, tendon

bekun point

bekuvatan (past def. bekuvoton) sharpen (to a point)

belebe cluster, mass, bunch

belutun jerk, be startled, twitch, flinch

belle debris, rubbish

bellon combine, mix

beman lie (face down), lie prone

bemen entrance, gate, ingress, passage

bempe tangled, untidy, messy, sloppy (of condition, not habit)

-beni under, below, beneath

bengen jar

benkie odd, eccentric

bennise crown (of head)

bente some, any; something, anything; someone, anyone; somewhat, at all

beon face

bene gift

beshe mug, jug, pot, (beer) stein; drunk

beshakan drunk, drunkard

beshan drink, have a drink; get drunk

bete oil

bethin burs

bethun herd (together)

betse alcohol, liquor

bibre narrow, close

bien rain

bien rain

biibe rake

biikhe brush

bilage soap

binie gourd

binne suffering, discomfort, misery; miserable, poor

bion make, shape, create

bire tiny thing; tiny, minute

biroen run

bishe evil, bad

-bo over, above

bo (imperative modal postvb.)

bokere sharp

bokaratan (past def. bokaroton or bokoroton) sharpen

bokhane people

bose top, uppermost surface, peak

booshe cheese

bothe chin

buande joint

buben decrepit abandoned house, shack; ramshackle, destitute

buisan (period of) mourning

buiton seep, leak, drip

buken travel

bulelen wrap up (as objects in cloth etc.)

burin command, direct

buru water spirit

bute red; reddish

buthan handle, manipulate

buven illness, disease

buviere ill, sick, diseased

budzan breathe (in and out)


mbaande beaded belt

mbarian compare, match

mbatan dare

mbatan bold

mbathe pitch, tar

mbaue free

mbekhe (spider's) web

mbelie hen, female (of birds)

mbendin put on (clothing); imitate, impersonate

mbene comrades, fellows

mbere gem

mbethen broom

mbikun cheat

mbilin jab, stab, poke

mbilun shop, store

mbille ash(es), cinders

mbisun shelf, ledge

mbite type, manner, way

-mbita like, as, in the manner of

mbome bunch, cluster

mbonde sea, ocean

mboote hubbub, confusion

mbootue (bolt of) lightning, lightning bolt

mbootuere lightning

mboshan dip, dive, plunge, rush

mbote nest

mboton nestling

mbodze pit, abyss, hell

mbuan swing, sway

mbuine turtle

-mbuke fully; as (...-ngo, as)

mbuke full

mbulle inner self, soul

mburun talk, converse

mbushe (little) kid


chaave food, prey

-chai (deontic) may

chaikudze see chaikunon

chaikun lamp oil, kerosene

chaikunon oil lamp, kerosene lamp

chakheren laugh loudly or uncontrollably, shriek or roar (with laughter), split one's sides, be in stitches, die laughing

chakheren loud or uncontrollable laughter, hilarity, hysterics

chalo (emphatic negative verb-enclitic) not; never

-challan half way, midway: [Luinachollongala na Tekima 'We walked halfway to Tekin']; only half, hardly, incompletely: [Kipechallaseke ni nuime 'You're hardly drinking your wine']

changatan (with inanimate obj.) chop up, chop in pieces; (with animate obj.) beat up, pulverize

chante box

chapan incense, spice, balm

chashan rustle, hiss, whisper, swish

chatharun flash, flicker, glitter, glimmer, sparkle, scintillate

chathe flashes, flickers, glints, sparkles, glimmers; flashing, glittering, glimmery, sparkling, scintillating; splendid, lovely, beautiful, wonderful

chaulle violet, purple, indigo; purplish

chechan suck out, take out, pull out; steal

chedzachone nephew; (younger) cousin

chedzampelen niece; (younger) cousin

chedze niece, nephew; (younger) cousin

chekhan trample

cheme cheek

chendzen shape, form

eochendziere ugly, misshapen

chene mother, mom; motherly, maternal

chepon ((person or animal) ) curl up

cherin secrets

chese nothing, not anything, none, not any; no, not any; not at all, un-, non-: [koshe cheso 'unclear']; [Atheve chese 'I don't see anything']; [Chesianisengala dai 'We don't have any']; [Khirin chese nu luthenge 'Nothing bothers my sister']

chesun mistreat, do ((someone) ) wrong, hurt:

cheetalan blackbird

chiaban antelope

chimile godmother

chinoon magic

chirape poor

chire name

chiseme grasshopper

chiite brink, rim, edge (of lake etc.)

chiupun yelp, yap, bark

chiupute yelp, yap, bark

chokun (of sight or hearing) notice, see, hear, spot, catch sight of; realize

chomethen crush

chompon whiskey

chondurun grunt, mutter, mumble

chone boy, (young) son

choose accent, stress

choosin accent(-mark)

choto (optative verb-enclitic) maybe, I hope

chuade mean, coarse

chuan bittern

chude birch

chuin sing, sing about: [Chuinkanie na Tsekon 'She sang about Tsekon']

chuken throat

chulun string ((beads etc.) ), line up

-chulun do one after another or all in a row or one at a time or each in turn:

chusupe corner

chushe drunk


dabo (neg. imperative modal postvb.) don't!

dai (sentence-final) not; (sentential) no. [Athiovio dai 'I didn't see it']

da (neg. cop.) not

sinda indeed (counterneg.)

sindae yes (counterneg.)

daite no, none

siindaite some (counterneg.)

dake Earth

dakia no more, no longer

dakhan take hold of, grasp

danjo (neg. counterfactual modal postvb.) if not

danka (neg. conditional modal postvb.) wouldn't

darun pike (fish)

dava (neg. hortative modal postvb.) let not etc.

davataino (polite neg. hortative modal postvb.) please don't

dason nothing

sindason something (counterneg.)

dau nobody, no one

sindau someone, somebody (counterneg.)

dauan unit of msmt., ca. 288 ft

daume street, avenue

dadze hand

dadzan dual (two) hands

de (2 sg. disjunctive nucleus.)

den knock, rap, strike (with a quick sharp blow)

-den quickly, suddenly

deama never

sindeama at some time, sometimes (counterneg.)

deben bedbug

dechan pot; (portion of) food left over after a meal

deeje bean soup

dekhe oar

dekhan row

deleve spots (of color); splotches

delie handful

dene (neg. interrogative) don't?; (in conditional constructions) if not, unless; (in subordinate clauses) whether not

denle morning

kadenle yesterday morning

kudenle this morning

denun direct, point, aim

deoren keep

diakan obey

dian throw

diben canopy, awning, tent

die no, not a

sindie some (counterneg.)

dieke (thick, heavy) smoke, fog, dark

dieme storm-bird (said to cause evil); villain (the name of a folk-tale antagonist)

diephan buy

diesen plug, stop up

diesedze plug, stopper

diiche nervous spell

diman field

dinie vine, creeper, tendril

-disio except, but, other than, apart from, besides

ditse little, short, narrow, slight, scanty

diun go

diumun shrink, droop, decline, languish

diunin drain, gutter, canal

diutse heel

divon spin, whirl

-do agentive by

dobin soil, earth

dolon East

dolon vote

dolomen election

domoone page

don mountainside dwelling

dore no, none

sindore some (counterneg.)

doore broad, wide, ample, large

dooren breadth, width, amplitude, size

don murder

dosipen fratricide, brother-killer; fratricide, brother-killing; fratricidal

dovo (neg. postpos.) only, just, none but, nothing but

dovonte slave

duan heat waves; fury, wrath; very hot; furious

duidin go through, experience, live. [duidin li ngu venje binno 'go through five miserable days']

duike bricks

duuma troll

dunon start, start off, leave

duone quick, fast, swift

duonen quickness, speed

dupen dock

dure (hardwood) tree


ndabe buttocks

ndaide anus

ndaphane brain

ndare end

ndareben limit, borderland

ndaratan finish

ndaure wise, sensible

-nde (pl. sfx. class 1 (np.)) -(e)s

ndembe thunderstorm

-ndeme (absol.) You; (absol.) Your

nden weir

ndenun old, former, past

ndeole ring

ndephe steam

ndephille steamy

ndeshe dove

ndevin receive

ndikele eczema

ndikhe pen, enclosure

ndime common, ordinary

ndimun prick, stab

ndiran grandparent, old relative

ndite nickel

ndobaikon grammar (book)

ndode hopes

ndodere hope; hopeful

ndodikhan hope

ndodiime hopeful

ndolle waist, middle, loins

ndoson look over, examine

ndudine inn, hostel

nduren help

ndueve mole

nduun persimmon

nduve (mild) breeze


-dzan re-, again, once more: [Ogodzonove ni atsan 'I rewrote the poem']; [Athedzalaikenge ni launtiono 'You'll see me again this evening']; [Riedzasanan 'It's raining again']

dzaime lime, caulk, paste, glue

dzaite lot, share; get one's share, get what one deserves: [Koolaike ni dzaite! 'You'll get what's coming to you!']

dzanun nibble, nip, bite at; taste, sip. [Dzanuvonge ti nkuitse ni suilasa 'The dog nipped my ankle']; [Dzanusenie ni phiphen 'She's sipping her soup']

dzanute nibble, nip; taste

dzaran inform, tell (...-obo of, that): [Dzorotienge ni kambobo 'He told me about the boat']

dzauthe molar; wisdom tooth

-dze (deverbal deriv. sfx. inan. instrument.)

dzeebon go after, pursue, chase

dzempon swallow; hide or cover up a secret; (-mu) run away, flee, scram, split: [Dzempomun bo! 'Split!']

dzende thorn, point

dzesan (a fire etc.) stir up, feed; (an oven, the flame of a lamp) turn up; (a person or emotion, esp. a negative emotion) rouse, stir up, provoke, excite, cause, make; (an action) provoke, incite, instigate: [Dzesan bo ni chaikun! 'Turn up the lamp!']; [Dzesavongala ti kalutie, dzuna baisola iipe su cheso 'Her words stirred us up so that we felt no fear']; [ashuadzine 'I wouldn't pick a fight']

dzeve young animals or people, adolescents; (of living things only) young, youthful

dziele back, spine; (of a hill or wave etc.) crest, ridge

dzimen tear off, knock off, break off, pull off; ((a cough or cry etc.) ) give, utter; ((fig.) ) give up, hand over, cough up: [Dzimeke bo ni suin! 'Hand over the book!']

dzimean pull or be torn or be broken off; cease, die

dzine male (animal); male (of animals only, or pejoratively of men)

-dzine appositive deriv. sfx. forming cpd. ns.: [ashuadzine 'ganders'], [phidzine 'he-goat'], [ukhudzine 'tomcat']

dzion three; third

dziokain thirteen; thirteenth

dzionondon sixty; sixtieth

dziudun cut down, destroy; betray, turn against

dzobon ferry, ferryboat

dzoborun ferry (across), take a or the ferry

dzolon (hair, grass, etc.) cut (off), trim; (an emotion, esp. pain) diminish, lessen: [Dzolon ti chompon ni ebenle 'Whiskey diminishes the pain']

dzonkhe (impossibly) narrow passage; vain, futile, ((hopes etc.) ) impossible, ((words etc.)) empty

dzu modal verb enclitic expressing surprise or unexpectedness: [Suiresenie dzu! 'She's asleep!']; [Cha! gosurienuanan dzu 'Whoosh! it starts pouring down rain!'].

dzuiren fiber, flesh, matter, stuff; material, real

dzun plait, weave; make, fashion (a story, lie)

dzunan (with -ia) be made or fashioned (out) of, be built on


-ndza down: [Pokondzononie ni odzolobo 'She ran down the hill']; [Menollindzalaingala ni pidasa 'We'll sleep down on the beach']

ndzakon harvest fair

ndzaphe chickens

ndzaphadzine roosters

ndzaphunge hens

ndzasue capital (city)

ndzebe ash (tree)

ndzekhen knock down

ndzenle image, likeness

ndzenun read

ndzendze nuts, acorns

ndzerre group, lot

ndziman shield

-ndzine (absol.) who(m)?; (poss.) whose?

ndzon oldest (child)

ndzope roots

ndzopatan root, establish, base

sondzopatan uproot

ndzophote mayor

ndzodze frogs

ndzue groundhog

ndzuphure river mouth

ndzurun numen, (resident) spirit


e- (transitive indefinite (disjunctive) local formative)

eamon draught

eante a little

earen happen

eareatan bring about, cause

ebenle pain

ebenlikhan be in pain, hurt, suffer

eche herbs, plants

edde real

eddin fact

edzemen roll

-eele not, not at all, un-; without, -less

eele empty

egene coffin

egon look at

ehie goose

ejan float, soar, glide

eku now, yet, already

eken sun

nlibekenon daisy

nuaneken setting sun, sunset; west; twilight, evening; evening, twilight, west(ern)

ekodzon spoil, mar, thwart

ekole season

ekuure blind

eekhe better

ekhen (open) fireplace

ekhon hide

ekhovan hide

eleke units of msmt., ca. 2.6 liters

elikan plant, stick in ground, fix in place

ellan look, search

eloote tower

eelun fish-hook

embe oven

emenge duck

eminin defeat, beat (at a game etc.)

emon find

emomen discovery

empain (drinking) glass

empo again

-(^n|v)en (deriv. sfx. personal agent) -er

ende good, worthy, able

endin hollow (out)

ene pot, kettle

enge tail (of bird)

eniemme pocket, pouch, purse

enien ask

eniete question

enkon Southwest

enloon aspens

enole chief, great, major, primary

entoo cake

endze ear

eoobe fewer, less

-bolo across, over

eombe leg

eopan laugh

eopan laugh

eovaran ill omen

epahapo witness

epen house

epin eat (of people only), dine

ephan right (opp. left)

ephe full

-era by, around

erage smooth, sleek

-( )ere -fulness, -iness, -ousness, -ery; -ful, -y, -ous

erie quick, agile

erkin stop

erkian stop

erme (species of tree)

eron bear

errese past, former

erresen (the) past

erte luck, fortune

eoterte misfortune, bad luck

eesin mountain

eesisun mountain range

eshe pit, hole

etere bottle

ethe skinks

etie only, merely, just

etme stomach

etsadzin remember

etsadzin memory

etseron count, reckon

-eva at, by


gade parts, portions

gadatan divide, part, apportion

gaagen rope strung across a river or chasm etc., or along a path traveled by night

gahean snag, catch

gairon work, labor

gairon work, labor

galan pass (-obo, by, along)

galien mix

galigin battle

gane smoke

gangisin tie up, tie in knots, confuse

ganuan stormy weather; stormy, mighty, terrific

garan hoe

gareede anxiety, fear

gareediime anxious, worried, afraid

gate noodle soup

gatsan stay, dwell

gaun bind, fasten

gaunin bond

sogaun detach, unfasten

geaste dawn, early morning

geddon Southeast

geegan creatures, beasts, wild animals

geeme smells

eogeeme stench, stink, reek

geeman smell, seem

geematan smell

gen cart, wagon

gendan close

gendavan close

genge temper, mood, nature, disposition

geon swim

geese alone

geesiime lonely

geshe defile, narrow passage

getin accompany, be or go with; (euphem.) sleep with

gibin chaos, muddle

gibin bemuddle, confuse

gide danger, risk

gidere dangerous, risky

giile medicine

gilon waves

giniadu pillow, cushion

gintie loins, crotch, pelvic region (not specifically including genitals)

gituve pale, ghastly

giudze pattern, theme

giurun brood, nest

gobe chair

gochen friend, pal, chum

godzon deny (something that's true), lie about

godzon fever

goe North

gokhon hoof

gonte stone carving, sculpture

gooren elbow

gootse uproar, din; blaze; flurry (of activity)

gopre combs

gosun pour [Gosubiesanan 'It's pouring down rain']

-gua (path or aspectual aux.) up, completely; up to

gudun lottery

guilise road, main road


gurinin (a flood, storm etc.) clear away, sweep away

gutun tattoo

guulin flow (profusely), flood; talk excessively


ngade bandits, thugs

ngadime (species of fruit)

ngaithe language

-(ng)ala (absol.) we, us; (poss.) our

ngampe (interrog.) how much?, how many?; how? [Noman ngampo ku kujaven? 'How old is the governor?']

-ngane (absol.) what?; (poss.) whose, which one's?; (pseudo-poss.) what, which?

ngankhare stinkbug

ngaphan party, f\^ete

ngan get, bring, take

ngasan test, try

ngaulan poke, prod

-nge (absol.) I, me; (poss.) my

ngedin bite

ngeen mother-in-law

ngele violent impulse, hot temper

ngere city

ngeven cluster, group, heap

ngedzen mark, tally, price

nginin kindle, ignite

nginian ignite

ngise stubborn, obstinate

ngitan stretch, pull, extend

-ngo like, as

-ngo (absol.) it; (poss.) its

ngohon rumors, bits of gossip

ngolle barren tree; fruitless, barren, bare, empty

-(ng)ono (absol.) which, that; (poss.) whose, which one's

-(ng)oso (absol.) they, them; (poss.) their

ngothon benefit, favor

-ngotho(no) on behalf of, for

ngun five; fifth

ngukain fifteen; fifteenth

nguire strip

nguiratan strip, tear into strips

ngulikun destroy, wipe out

ngulun burst open

ngure proud

ngure dike, dyke, embankment

nguren pride

-(ng)uru (absol.) you, y'all; (poss.) your, y'all's

ngute comfort

ngutere comfortable

nguthie turf, sod



h is no longer a phoneme. These entries will be changed if necessary, and moved elsewhere.

eopapan corruption, curse, evil

eopapan corrupt, curse, violate

haraue zinc

sopare disagreement, discord

eoheegan monsters

eojethe ill wind, tempest, bad weather


-ia (possessive and instrumental) with

ianooe chimney

iaran take away, remove

-iasho (made) of

iathe eagle

iauan phosphorus

iaun ice

ibelie slow

ibelien slowness

iche ford

idage roof

idian see dimly

-ie to, into

ieje deeds, acts, feats

-iene (pl. sfx. class 3) -(e)s

ienkuere branches

ienodze pitcher

iente harbor, haven

iere part, quarter, region

ieta downstream

ieten lose

ieven freeze

ieven frozen

igun (large) basket

iken weather, climate; atmosphere, ambience, aura; mood, disposition, temperament

ikun believe

ikhin not know

iliere swan

ille arm

imbe ax

imme water

eotimme tainted water, poison, acid; hard liquor

immin drop (of water)

tiranimme waterfall, cascade

impun scratch, mark

imun sew

-in piece or bit (of), thing

inale late

inde taste

eotinde bad taste

indan taste, seem

indatan taste, try

ine aft, rear

ineeme afternoon

kaineeme yesterday afternoon

kuineeme this afternoon

ingun beware, look out for

inje slander, calumny

injarun (with -obo) slander

inke dice, lots

inkie great (in size or number)

inlain approach, be about to

inlethon stalks, blades

inneere gnome

intan stature, size, importance

inte little, few; hardly

inue nose

iokine thigh

iolle (minute) grains, seeds, crumbs, bits

iomon pass, spend (time)

ionin play

ionin game

-iono in

iore wishes

iorikhan wish

ioriime wishful

ioroben island

ioron remote land, island

iose flames

iosatan light, set on fire

iipe fear

iipikhan be afraid

iipiime afraid

ipoore fate, destiny, doom

eotipoore doom, ill fate

ipooratan fate, destine, doom

ire master, ruler, sovereign

irindze ells (unit of msmt.)

iron teach

iromen teaching, instruction

isin cut

-itsa (down) from; as a result of

iishe hunter

ishen peas

iten go

itien gray or grizzled hair; gray, grizzled, hoary

ithon plow

ithon plow

iu person, human

iukhun bowl, dish

iunde cage, jail

iuven mice

iudzen village

ive child, young person

idzen let go, loose, let

idzin lead, guide

suidzin mislead

idzuere potash


jan prevent, impede, forbid

jadze springs, fountains

jaite teacher

jajan yell (enthusiastically), cheer; (with -una) support (a person, a plan, etc.), speak up for, praise, defend

-jalan (aspect) burst out ...-ing, suddenly start to ... (abundantly)

jampe sack, bag

jan person

jaran tear, rip

jarankan tear off, rip off

jauren wood

jeje (medicinal) amulet; (plus undetermined metaphorical uses)

jeejonko (attrib. noun) long ago

jemen glue, paste; constitution, mettle

jendzalan hop (on one foot)

jenge sapling, young tree

jenle key

jethe wind

jeven (large) lump, tumor

jiithe gleet, gonorrhea

jile chink, crack, crevice

jilie assembly, assemblage of people, meeting

jinde army, (military) expedition, troop, band

jinlan thrill, excite

jinlamun thrilling, exciting

jollon finish off, kill, put an end to; drink up

jonde fireplace, hearth, fireside

joo (adverb?) tomorrow

joren dried up (by heat), withered, desiccated

juitarun play cards

juitaruven card-player

juitaruvese cards, card-playing

juite cards, playing-cards

julun flutter, flicker

junle moss, algae, lichen

juraben meadow, field

juran (blades of) grass

juten upland(s), highlands


-nja like, something like; (with diminutive effect) -ish, -y

njadzun balance

njamen wheel

-nje (int. aux. or deriv. sfx.) badly, mis-

njente stench, stink, foul odor; malodorous, smelly; fishy, suspicious

njen fold, bend

njikan fight, struggle against or with, battle, combat

njilin pierce, puncture

njo (counterfactual modal postvb.) if

njove whip, scourge

njudzute device, contrivance, invention


ka-/ke-/ki- (deriv. pfx.) fore-, pre-, before, first, front, top; last (day, year etc.)

-k(a) inflection-bearing preformative

kaaniun fall over; (with -ie) become suddenly

kabain offer, present

kabaimen offering, presentation

kabon beat, pound

kabodze mallet, hammer

kachaman mushrooms

kaadzun groan, cry out (in pain)

kahan (large) wagon

kain ten; tenth

kaina always

kainama forever

kaje chatter, prattle, gossip

kajan chatter, prattle, gab, gossip

kalaman heal, cure, mend

kalaman cure, remedy

kalamanen healer, doctor, leech; curative, remedy

kalan words

kalasun word list, glossary, vocabulary, dictionary

kaleege logic

kalle fate, lot, fortune

eokalle doom, ill fate

kalun speak, talk

kalumen speech

kambe boat

-kane (interrog. inan. pron. erg.) what?

kanton priest

karivate threshold

kasankin scout, foreguard

-kata not want to, won't

kataue thumb

kathan break, gap, cleft

kaven big, large

-ke (2 sg. pron. erg.) you; your

-ke (pl. sfx. class 2) -(e)s

ke (3 inan. sg. and pl. nom. disjunctive nucleus.)


keaban upper lip; haughty, arrogant, supercilious, snobbish, priggish

keabanakan snob, prig

keaihun head, foremost part

kean bath

keanan bathe

kebe bottom, underside

keeche letter

kelembarun travel, take a trip

kelembe journey

kemboo torture

keme first

kenden beg, entreat, plead

kendon twenty; twentieth

-kene -ing, -(at)ion; -ed, -en

kenkan laugh (pleasantly rather than otherwise)

keome (cooking-)pot

kere (num. anim. disj.) one; someone, somebody: [Athiove kere su ni ruiviono 'I saw someone in the reeds']

kerien tiles

-kero happen to; perchance

keron (with -ie) find oneself, happen upon

kerue door

kesenen prick, stab

keshere result, reward

keta forward

kia still

kiallen colander

kien burn

kievan burn

kilun squat, crouch

kiime high, tall

kiimen height, stature

kinlin strong, forceful

kinlinen strength

-kio (portmanteau pron. 2 sg. erg.) + (3 inan. sg. absol.) you (v.t.) it

-kioso (portmanteau pron. 2 sg. erg.) + (3 inan. pl. absol.) you (v.t.) them

kipen drink

kipiere drunk

kipedze cup, glass

kipin drink

kirenne palm (of hand)

kirre bald or bare spot, empty space; bald, bare, blank, empty, barren

kisun orange (color); orange (colored); orang(e)ish

kitsen weakling, coward; weak, cowardly

(-)kiu- (reciprocal pron. formative) each other, one another

kiule goblin

kiunan chew

kmaitse lazy

kmaitsen laziness, indolence, languor, lethargy

-ko from, of

-ko (3 inan. sg. pron. erg.) it; its

ko (proper noun article) the

koboe hare

kodze wildcat

koge shovel, spade

kombe lanterns, lamps

ko'one empire

ko'onon emperor

kompe less, fewer

koran build, put up

koramen building

korin hit, push, shove, slap, thump

korite blow, push, shove, slap, thump

korome tired

koromen fatigue

korun come to know, realize

koon eat

koode food, meal

-koso (3 inan. pl. pron. erg.) they; their

koshe clear

koshen clearness, clarity

-koto (3 inan. sg. and pl. relative pron. erg.) which, that

ku (definite article animate nominative) the

ku (prevb.) now, yet, already; still; when, as, while

ku- (deriv. and deictic pfx.) this (day, year etc.)

kungane (interrog. adverb present) when?

kuambe knots

kuambatan knot, tie

kuandze dream

eokuandze nightmare

-kudzava ago

kueken crippled, lame

kuende number

kueve Cycle (39 years)

-kuijun (aspect) look (like), seem (like)

kuime healthy, well

eokuime ill, unwell, sick

eokuimen illness, sickness, ill health

kuimen (good) health, wellness

kuin shine

kuive ribs

kujan plant (a field) in rows; instruct, order; rule, govern

kujaven governor, mayor

kumpin navel

kunlausa just now (recently)

kupuin fart

kurien crooked

kusie medicine, drug



kr occurs only in some dialects, where it is pronounced roughly as k + voiceless uvular fricative.

krachan clank, rattle; roam about, swagger

kraitin squeeze, press, force, cram

krame herd animal, livestock

kren be busy, work energetically

krelun scorch, singe, burn

krenen zigzag

kretsan squawk, croak, crow, chuckle

krilan drive, propel

krove pole

krun testicle

kruule deep sea, deep water; deep


-nka (past indefinite tense) -ed, have ...-ed, used to ... etc.

nka (conditional modal postvb.) would

nka'an pith

nkaile home

nkairan calamity

nkapan strike, hit, knock

nkaphan bend

nkaphavan bend

nkare planks, boards

nkaromen planking, deck

nkaute impetuous, hasty

nkadze marrow

nkelan poke, nudge

nkemen windstorm

nken whole, entire, complete

nkente lodging place, (established) campsite

nkeepe hate, hatred

nkeepikhan hate

nkeepiime hateful

nkeven trouble, disturb, bring trouble to

-nki apart

nkiare god

nkiete castrated animal

nkine port, wharf

nkirie lizard

nkobon strife, discord

nkomon startle, surprise

nkoone ants

nkopale fences, palisades; enclosures, folds

nkopalatan fence (in), enclose

-nku out

nkuan declare, announce, proclaim

nkuale garden

nkudzan flute, recorder

nkuen outside, exterior

nkuitse dog

nkuitsadzine male dog

nkuitsunge female dog, bitch

nkume orphans

nkunure owl

nkusun avoid, shun (through fear)


kha more, else, in addition

khabun cloth

khae gorge

khaide edge

khaidin belch out, blurt out, emit

khaikhe beetle

khaime thicket

khaisan newt, salamander

khamethe flags, banners

khandun debate, argue

khandumen debate, argument

khanin whisper

khanin whisper

khantie haze, blur, shadow (as in distance); hazy, shadowy, vague

khanun bloom, come to life; (with -ie) come to be, become

khanure cold

khapun stiff, straight

kharon kain, tax made in kind

khashe poison

khaue amphora, vessel

khause scythe

khede rest, remainder

khe'e lump

kheeche crack, crevice

khembe eel

kheme (round) loaves (of bread)

khemikhin whisper, blow gently

khenan (raw) meat, flesh

khene needles

khenen assault, attack

kherukun scrape

kheste bow

khevan stand fast, persist, last

khedze mattress, cushion

khiatan defeat, vanquish

khie yes

khieke knuckle

khille (open) temple, sanctum

khimune vulva

khine bum, vagabond

khirin bother, annoy, vex

khirimun bothersome, annoying

khivun break

khodzan fair, festival

khoke onion, leek

khole sweet

khon coast

Khonlakan (a forest god)

-khoro around

khovie spouse, mate

khovian get married

khuan teach, instruct

khuavan learn

khuede honor, virtue

khuile circle

khuin hunt

khurankharen (pounding) surf

khuurin beads

khurre ivy, climbing vine

khuthe shit

khuve warm

khuven warmth


-la (1 pl. pron. erg.) we; our

la'alake (nuclear) family

la'ampan (sea)shell

laguse bait, lure

lahakin paddle

-lai future tense sfx.: morphophonemic alternant of -nai used with monosyllabic stems.

laise place

-(vo)laisa instead of, in place of

lakhun please

aitalakhun displease

lakhumun pleasant

lakhuvan like, enjoy

lakhuvamen pleasure

lampe enough

lande legends, (stories of) lore

kalande early (unwritten) legends or lore

langan squabble, quarrel, bicker

langa (adverb?) later, after a while, soon, afterwards

langan squabbling, quarreling, discord; squabbling, quarrelsome, discordant

langate (point or bone of) contention, dispute, difference, variance

lankhan committee, tribunal

laare quay, wharf

laron ball, sphere

thialaron hemisphere

lasan flat land; flat

lashan sing

lashe tall, long, deep, high

late pincers, claws

latatan pinch; grab

laumon bile

launte evening, night

kalaunte last evening, last night

kulaunte this evening, tonight

ladzan honey

laadze (trail) marker, sign

-le sg. sfx

le (interrogative) ; (in conditional constructions) if; (in subordinate clauses) whether

lekme West

-lele everywhere, all over the place

-lengo off

lenke mind, will

lenon lick

lephon earn, gain, win

leshe song

letan hair(s); (sg.) (single) hair

leve shadows

li- (deriv. pfx.) re-, back, again

lian seven; seventh

liakain seventeen; seventeenth

liabe paper

liabin (piece of) paper

lian stand

liavan Summer

kaliavan early summer, last summer

lieme dark skin; dark-skinned, dark

li'isen run (madly) about

lijurun fall over, fail

likun loner, animal outside the herd or flock etc.; outsider etc.

limbin breakfast

lime shallow

limpe sap, juice, pus, spit

lin peace

linge donkey, ass

linkin ?

-linlu up

liothen wither, fade

lithe country, nation

lithe thick, fat

-liu can, be able to

liupe knee

kaliupe shin

liurun answer, respond, reply

liurute answer, response

liuse lice

liutse fool; foolish

live (the) beyond, other side

-lo (alternate portmanteau pron. 1 pl. erg. + 3 inan. sg. absol.) we (v.t.) it

lon become

losten (the) future, what is to come

loe foot

lonke fault, guilt

lonte (var. of lonke)

loope clean, pure, clear

loopatan cleanse, clean, purify

lore lake

-loso (alternate portmanteau pron. 1 pl. erg. + 3 inan. pl. absol.) we (v.t.) them

lovooke scarf

luchun pin, peg; toe

ludin return, come back, go back

ludin return

luente ally, comrade

soluente enemy, adversary, rival

luinan walk

-luku back

lulen ? suck

lumeon measure, gauge, judge

luupe ridge, spine

luthe sister



The status of nl as a phoneme is questionable; it's found only in certain dialects.

nlaike bad

nlale thirst

nlalille thirsty

nlalikhan thirst, be thirsty

nlampan slap

nlapen push

-nlausa earlier, recently

nleane law

nlege deep

nleeme sly, cunning, clever

nlese spear

-nleva across, beyond

nlibe eye

nliban (two) eyes

nlibekenon see eken

nligin sink, settle, descend

nliron melt

nlise resin, gum, glue; resinous, sticky, adhesive

nliton dawn, become bright, clear up

nlobe gorse

nlokun lay responsibility on; be owed money from. [Nlokusotienge 'I owed her money']

nlothe voice

thianlothe whisper, low voice

nlukhe potato

nlule feathers

nlumun heap up, pile up

nlusin (shiny) white; (shiny) whitish

nluuthin spoil, destroy, ruin


-lla/-lle (frequentative/habitual)

lla (prevb.) then (past); when, as, while

lla (num. anim. proclitic) two

llande (num. anim. disj.) two; two, a couple: [Mburuson ku llande nu Siulluvo 'Two (of them) were talking with Siullun']

llangane (interrog. adverb past when?)

llaive wrinkle

llakhan shine, gleam, flash

llakukhan water snake

llamun cut off

llasan funeral

lleavan doubt, be suspicious of

llede plaster

lleeche dust devil, whirlwind

llembe energy, vigor, power, strength

llembille energetic, vigorous, potent, strong

llepen witness

lleten bubbles

llidon choke

lliken move abruptly, move suddenly

llila (over) there

lli(l)- (deictic III) (over) there, that (over there)

lliman rumble, resound

llipan droop, be limp; loaf, languor, be lazy; limp; lazy, languid; useless

llokon thud, thump

llonan pasture

llosun slash, slice

llulin graze

llure womb, uterus

-lluthu way, a long way, far (away), in the distance

lluvan die (of wind, fire, etc., and euphemistically of people)


-ma to, towards, for

ma some (partitive article)

ma (num.) four; (ord.) fourth

maaran hold (esp. in mouth or closed hand); contain; hide, conceal

maase brother-in-law (applied to any male aralle of one's spouse)

maatse loop (of string etc.)

makain fourteen; fourteenth

manondon eighty; eightieth

mabennon wander, err

mabennovatan misguide, lead astray

maache awful, terrible, horrible

maden school

madin gather, collect

magaren copper

magan suffer, be ill or ailing or sick; suffer from a fever, have a fever. ; I'm sick of your deception.

mahene (regional) governor

maikan aunt

mainampe grandmother

mairise celery

maje scanty, poor, paltry, meager

make green; greenish

-mala on, on top

mallen candles

mana thus

manare brothel

manten gulf, bay

ma'on wooded river valley

masian rascal, rogue

mate need

matan (with -una) need

mauman moan, groan

mauman moan, groan

maunte stick, staff, club

madzin pinch, tweak, pull

madzimuitun pinch together

madzinkan pinch off, pull off, pluck

madzumen bundle of clothes

mege curtain, veil

mekne fresh, new, young

mekhon spell, sound out, pronounce

mele beginning

mellin square

meman remain, stay

membe spleen

memene gate

mempe wedding

-men (deriv. sfx. v.) -ery, -ment, -age, -ing

men (emphatic modal postvb.) indeed, in fact, really

meen iron

mende sweet, tasty

menle awkward, clumsy

menon sleep

somenon go without sleep; hold vigil; worry

mendze baby

-mene all, all the way

meore origin; original

meonne cairn

meon lie, be lying down

-mera because of, due to, on account of

mesie frost, sleet, snow, (biting) cold wind; frosty, snowy, biting cold

meshen plants, greens

meete shoe

methe flower

michen olive

mielin shy, wild

miendze river

miete brood, litter

migan steal, rob

migaven robber, thief

mikhue store(house)

mila here

mi(l)- (deictic III) here, this (here)

mindamo therefore

minnan steer, guide

minte light

miode too much

mire different, dissimilar

mirin send

kamirin send ahead

mise trees

mishun dig up, root up; discover, find out

mitsuron Northwest

miuton trust, confidence, faith

mochon burned end (of wood); (of wooden things etc.) burned, burned up; (of people) exhausted, depressed

mokhen dried fish

mokhan (species of tree)

molan feign, pretend

-mola pretend to

monane last

kamonane next-to-last

monde plans, schemes, designs

kamonde plans, intentions, preparations

kamondan plan, intend, prepare

more good

mon hear

momen hearing

monin sound

mosue icons, totems

mosuirin shrine

moten flow

mothue fox

motse vinegar

modzan dull, blunt; weak, ineffectual; unintelligent

-mu detransitive

muante breach, gap, break, hole

mudze light, easy

muelle wheat

mugoge soup, stew

muike strings

muine sunlight; light, radiant

muire too much, too many; too

muitun join, connect, attach, couple

mune gray; grayish

mure path, trail

musin look for (but not find), grope for

-musi try in vain, fail to

-muthaman (aspect) too much, too many, over-

muure prophecy

eomuure evil prophecy, curse


-(n) conominal

-n (deriv. sfx.) -ing etc.

-(n)a (elliptical copulative sfx. n.) be, go, do etc.

-na (passive) ; (impersonal pron. nom.) it, one, they, someone, something; (with vbl. deriv., -(n)a) there is, there are

na'an leap; push; shout

-nai (future tense) will, shall

nain king, queen, emperor

nakaun dazzle, bewilder, distract

nakaumen confusion, distraction

nakaumun dazzling, bewildering

nakhun terrify, cause to tremble

nakhumun terrifying

naman choose

kanaman prefer

naman choice

naame stream, brook

nampan crowd

nampon eat up, consume, devour, destroy

namu mama, mom, mommy

nande heavy, dense

nandese large flat-bottom two-sail boat

naane lair

nangala (interrog. deictic adverb) where?

nanien sausages

nankan swamps, lakes

nanne viper

napare tea

naape horn (of animal)

narue plain

nasan wrist

nasue male kind, men-folk; (of people) male

natin wait for

nauke dark, gloom, murk

naukille dark, gloomy, murky

naun put

nauten smile

nauten smile

sonauten frown

sonauten frown

ne (3 anim. and inan. sg. and pl. acc. disjunctive nucleus.)

nearon hold back, hinder, delay, slow

nebon harm, injure

-nedzo backward, in back

ne'in make oneself small, scrunch, hide

-nekatu forward, in front

nekhon bay

nemen break

-(^n|v)en (deriv. sfx. personal agent) -er

-nenga through

-nenin (aspect) start; ((dimin.) ) here and there, now and then, a little, for a while, off and on

-( )nepa against

neren weave

nen (binominative) be; (with -ikha) have

neese region, realm

neste some, a certain

nesten (there) be, exist

nesten existence

netse fog

ni (definite article inanimate oblique) the

niamu see niamu

nianke beard

niiche tobacco

-nie (absol.) he, she, him, her; (poss.) his, her

-nieno (absol.) who, whom, that; (poss.) whose

niiole map, chart

nikhe short

-nimalan (aspect) almost, not quite

nime air

nimin weak, frail, brittle

ninue sad

-ninke (pl. sfx. used with some monosyllabic nouns) -(e)s

niolle wing

niollan fly

nioone sanctuary, shelter

nipu soldier

nipun blame, censure, rebuke, reproach, scold

nipullamun renounce

-nisie (3 anim. pl. absol. pron.) they, them; their

niven appear, come into view

nivon desert, abandon

n(n)akhan snot

n(n)ebe cracks, fissures

-ndo partitive (quantitative) of

-nnuite (absol.) You; (poss.) Your

n(n)unde confused, dizzy

no (syntactic particle (obl/absol))

noe pair, set (of two)

noedzen think

noedzemen thought

noedzelle pensive, thoughtful

nome old

nontoe fist

noon cock, male (of birds)

nope band, stripe

norin room, chamber

kanorin antechamber, vestibule

non pass, go by

kanon surpass

nos(u) a, one of the

note dead

noten death

nooven guard, watch over

-nun (aspect) begin to

nu (definite article animate oblique) the

nuan come to rest, (of the sun) set


nuchen penis

nuelle dust

nuime wine

nuin ship

-nunku suddenly

nuuke sky

nupun crumbs

nure awe, wonder

nutun die


o- (intransitive indefinite (disjunctive) local formative)

-o (genitive) of (adjectival inanimate)

obin chip, splinter

-obo by, along, through, during

ochan split open (something with a soft interior)

ochore shoulder

odande hook

oede new

oen treasure, wealth

oenle drop

ogon write

okite scale, balance

okitatan weigh, balance

okhosin lace (clothing)

olian calm, quiet, still(ness)

olome loud

olope lack

olopikhan lack

olui dwarf

ollose cabal, secret or clandestine society, conspiracy; secret, covert, clandestine, conspiratorial

ollun father-in-law

ombon udder

omi (knitted) sweaters or shirts

omokon urine

omokonan urinate

omote hour

ompe apples, pears

onainda downwind

onde leaves

onen play music

onemen music

ookun roll, ripple, undulate; flow

oonen courtyard, yard, commons, field

oneve histories, stories, tales

onlaue table, desk

oole ((non-human) ) father, (adult) male

opaitse mouth

opane time, while

seetopane meantime, meanwhile

open heat; hot

ophon lure, entice, tempt

ophomun tempting, enticing

opuden sour

oran (freight) boat, barge

orde rod, staff, stick

orean avoid

oriive spoons

orobe smart, intelligent

oron think about, consider, ponder, weigh

oromen thought, consideration

oromun thoughtful, pensive

oruane forest, wood

orran find out

orran news, information

ospon salt

oten mole

otonkeeme calendar

otorin open

otorian open

othooe skill, craft

otse egg

otsere valley

ovatun league, alliance, confederation

ovatuvatan confederate

oviie bundle, package

ovole money

ovolin coin

oodze grace, elegance; graceful, elegant

odzen question, doubt

odzenille questionable, doubtful, dubious, uncertain

odzole hill

keodzole foothill, upslope


paache steward, butler, attendant (or either sex)

paan horse

paaven rider

pain hit, bump (against)

paire storm

pakue steps; cabins, berths, bunks

pakueben terrace, terraced land

pakuirin stairway

pampen load down; blame

pampun silly, foolish; (with -obo) fond of

pande hollow

pandeben hollow (place)

pandiime stupid

panle waist

papan touch

papan touch

pare agreement, accord

parian push out, expel; deny

parian agree

parue zinc

pason pipe

paten blister

paue black; blackish

paure seeds

pealare cord, rope

peelin clear out, finish off; eat up, drink up

-pelin (aspect) keep on ...-ing, continue to; still

pelin hide (in fear)

pelipenevan hide-in-the-rock (lizard)

pella maybe

pelle poison

pene stone, rock

penin stone, rock, pebble

penke near(by)

pente ((non-human) ) mother, (adult) female

pendze wolf

peonde hillside

perun bed

pesen white (opaque--as clouds, smoke, milk etc.)

pesenin decide (a case), rule

petenge remote (mountain) settlement

pethan plunge, fall, rush, hasten

pethan haste

pethe sudden

pethasa suddenly

pin cut open, gash, slit

piadzan strike, collide with, pound against, smack

piare walls

kapiare bulwarks

pichan jump, bound, leap

pidan save, conserve, preserve

pide beach

pien female kind, women-folk; (of people) female

piesen vengeance, retribution

piete few, not many

piille pancake, flat cake

pione (dull) white

piose pine (tree)

piparin hammer

-pipun (aspect) stop, cease

pire male (animal)

pise pebbles, gravel

piten raft

plain barrel, cask, keg

pon come

-pon (aspect) be about to; soon

pode brisk, nimble, agile, active

pogenie trunk, chest

pokon run, rush, hurry

ponten hack, slash, cut; slander, defame

poone dew

poorete muck, slime

poren bald head, pate; bald-headed person; bald-headed

poron unit of msmt. = 5.8 inches

puarin miss, fail

puiche even, equal

puille list, account, index

puikhan (one of a race of humans)

puipe belly, tummy

puipere pudgy, plump, potbellied

pule veins, arteries

puli personal belongings

pumpon roar, croak, creak, groan, growl

pumpuere noisy, plaintive

punante damp, wet

puraithe autumn, fall

puron weep, cry, lament

uspuron bawl, wail, sob, howl

puru or



pr occurs only in some dialects, where it is pronounced roughly as p + voiceless uvular fricative.

prallan dip (into liquid)

prankun flap, flop about

prase buds

praute tomorrow

preen hinge, joint

preken scratch

prikode slipper

prise (spinning-)top

proche hollow, recess, niche

prupe anchor

prusun storm, blow, gale; throw a tantrum, have a fit; be in a commotion, bustle about


mpadian barn

mpaime basin, bowl

-( )mpano around, on both sides of, across

mpase seer

mpe (irrealis subordinating nominalizing conjunction) that; to, in order to or that

mpekie bravado, audacity, brazenness, sass, impertinence, insolence; bold, audacious, cocky, brach, reckless, brazen, sassy, impertinent, insolent, rude

mpelen girl, (young) daughter

mpelle plot, tract of land

-mpeni in two, apart

mpeshere showers, mist, drizzle

mpetse cross, x, x-shaped object

mpedze sword

mpie week (six days)

mpinkan sting, prick

mpithun bless

mpitse cool, fresh

mpidzun clever

mpo and, just, even, also, but; (with na, non-restrictive)

mpokhe ready

mpokhatan make ready, prepare

mpona then

mposun forgive

mpuate ugly

mpuie bowels, entrails

mpunie mill

mpureme insistent, urgent


phage clump of small trees

phailin fill up, overfill; worry

phaipe beer

phajan yoghurt

phanan let, allow

pharan lung

pharan be all (of something)

pharun spit

pharunan spit

phan happen to, befall

phaun clip, crop, dock, lop off

phavan alarm

phebe widow(er)

pheden well

phegan fast

phele dark

phelen darkness

phende weak, feeble

phenke neighborhood, milieu, surroundings; nearby, close

-( )phenka near, close (to)

phenun cure, salt, preserve

pheon relate, tell

pheoden tale, account

pherie slap

pheriatan slap

pheen pull out, take out, remove

pheche nipple

phedzan yawn, gape

phedzan yawn, maw, gap

phedzankan open up

phiekun milk

phieratan flash a light at, spot (with a light)

phikan test, try

phin goat

phinunge she-goat

phidzine he-goat

phiphen broth, soup

phirun bury (dead)

phisen fleas

phon six; sixth

phokain sixteen; sixteenth

phoelen rub

phonde liver

phookan uncle

phomin hay

phoonampe grandfather

phope fool, joker

phosene trade, profession

phote beacon

phulun fly, soar, glide

phuin snout, muzzle

phuiun sulfur

phun (cooking) fire

phurun bridge

phuruvatan bridge, span


raban forehead

raime clouds

rain (species of tree)

rakoe power, might

rakhe fish(es)

rambe nail, peg

raate customs, usages, practices; customary, usual

rauan cliffs

karauan base of cliffs

rautsun hum, mumble, buzz

reebin logic, reason

-reke (pl. sfx. used esp. with nouns meeting certain phonological criteria) -(e)s

rekhe master

rekhan fell, cut down

-reme (2 defer. pl. pron. erg.) You; Your

reemite pen, writing instrument

rempan shake

reenan sail

rende judge

renthe market town

rephe mast

rere state, condition

reshan love, eros, lust

reshanan make love

reshanikhan love, lust (after), desire

reshaven lover

retsane coronation

rialmin (species of plant)

ribe clothes, garments

ribakhon clothing, clothes

ribomen clothing, clothes

ribatan clothe, dress

ribovan dress, get dressed

soribovan undress, get undressed

richun plait, braid

riie time, epoch

kariie antiquity, yore

riete host(s)

-rikan (aspect) stop, give up, leave off

rikaden rest, sojourn

rikan stop, give up

rikun weigh

rikumen weight

rikunan weighty, heavy

rikuvan weigh

rikhende dirt, filth

rikhendille dirty, filthy

rinulle crow, rook

rioone world

karioone antiquity, primeval world

risin fly, take flight

sivarisin flee

-rite past, by

rithon resemble

riuke moths

riumin listen (to)

soriumin disregard, ignore

rivan (domesticated) animals

rivate ?

rokue fair, light-skinned

romben undertake, perform (ceremony), do

roobe brittle

rookan fall and break, collapse, come crashing down

rookavatan fell (a tree), bring down (the roof); confound, bring (a person) to shame, embarrass, humiliate; provoke (a fight), bring on (a storm), cause

roran cup

roste beech

rotsun cover (completely); overwhelm

-ru (2 pl. pron. erg.) you, y'all; your

-ru (derivational noun forming vi. sfx.) do, act (like) etc.

run stand, be

rudalle butterflies

ruenge rot

ruengille rotten

ruge milk

ruindze scar

ruive reeds, canes

rukhe lump, bump

ruulote spider

rumen standing, condition

rumun flesh

ruun bird

rune soft, gentle, mild

-ruo (alternate portmanteau pron. 2 pl. erg. + 3 inan. sg. absol.) you ... it

-ruoso (alternate portmanteau pron. 2 pl. erg. + 3 inan. pl. absol.) you ... them

rusaalin found, establish

rusin kernels, (edible) seeds


-sa at, on; (adverbial) -ly; (ordinal) -(e)th

-sa (vi. only) progressive/stative participial: -ing

-sa/-se (imperfective aspect) be ...-ing

saban create, cause, bring about

sain begin, start, commence

saire beginning, start

saake bone

saalun moon-festival

kasaalun days before the saalun

saitse (tree) monkey

sanene pearl

sankin guard

sara (verb enclitic) but, on the other hand

-sari mustn't, shouldn't

sarrin take a rest

sasen log

saate (tree) stump

sate firm, steady

saune breast (of woman)

sauphe demon, devil

savashe hot spring

save (-o only) other

saven life

sadze mind

-se (variant of -(n|v)ese used with monosyllabic verb stems)

se (1 sg. disjunctive nucleus.)

sea but

sedie perfume, balm, lotion

sechen fat

selle Moon

eoselle evil moon, evil sign, ill portent

semone age, time of life, generation

sempe gold

sempin piece of gold, gold coin

sosempe fool's gold

senadze barrier

senge spirit

senkun (grains of) rice

sendzon reach, arrive at

seon live

seonille living, alive

serun boundary, border, margin

sese flour, meal

sesi (interjection (a mild expletive)) shoo!, scram!, beat it!, buzz off!

seete middle

seetavenjon noon, midday

setse piece

-si right, straight, directly

-ri (de-ergative valency operator (used only when A and P are coreferential or co-possessive)) -self, -selves

siachan stroke, pet, caress

siagan farm, cultivate

siahu (summer) rain shower

siakhe dear, beloved

sianke glass

siapen chisel

siaten sand

sibau (sleeping) mats

siche straight

sielen trinkets, trifles

sielin bow, bend over

sien more, most (of); -er, -est

sige tight, taut

siidze firefly

sije cap, hood, cover

siike image

siise bold, brave

sikua maybe (dubitative particle)

sikuse scab, crust; dry, hard, congealed, crusty

sikhan boil

sileen soldier, warrior

simbun grow

kasimbun Spring

sime dance

simun dance

siin bird of prey (eagle, falcon, etc.)

sinkaran use

sinle (dark) brown; threatening (clouds); sombre, gloomy (mood)

sipen brother

sipion grasp, understand

siple pants

siphen hospice

sithe swift, brisk, strong, robust

sken hang

skeatan hang

so-/su- (deriv. pfx.) un-, dis-, de-, mis-, for-

sobain leave

sobu grandpa(pa), uncle, gaffer, old man

sokhaaron spend

sokhin tongue

solinkin let go, release, loose

somenon see menon

son things

sonemen cease

soon go, ride, be carried

sopene floor

soran target

soravatan aim at

soshe dirt, crud, grime, soot

sovan untie, undo, pull apart; break (an agreement)

sove many

soodze beautiful

speke flash, glance, glimpse

spoon cover

-tsava can't, not be able to

-ste (deriv. sfx.) -less, without, non-

stilakan sparkle, glitter

stiphe kind, sincere

stobe sure, certain

su (with noun) indefinite/partitive article: a, an, some (often untranslated): [Sinkavio baania su 'I cut it with a knife']; [Athiola chonende su 'We saw some boys']; [Lakhunne chompon su 'I like whiskey']; (with neutral verb) infinitive article: to, -ing: [Talonie dzuna simun su 'He wanted to dance']; [Monove mburunan su ni epeniono 'We heard talking in the house']

-sua epistemic must

suen book

sueta upstream

suikurun note, take note of, consider, beware, attend to, remember

suilun ankle

suiren leave, depart

suidze bare, bald (of hair, vegetation, etc.)

suke sparrows

suule month

-sulon (aspect) have just; recently

-sun (derivative sfx.) set, collection etc.

suntikon squint, leer, look askance

suorin trip, stumble, blunder

suorin misstep, blunder

suurun lie, tell a lie

suurun lying, deceitful, false

suurute lie

-sutikun (aspect) again and again, repeatedly


(-)sha- (conjunctive pron. formative) and

shadzun stop, staunch, quell, dam

shaike cousin, aunt, uncle

kashaike aunt, uncle, older relative

shainun thresh

shan cabbage

shanan sprinkle

shanampan yak, chatter, prattle

shankan sneeze

shapan take a (little) taste of

shapokan ballast

share big, huge

sharuke eager

shaue substance, matter, stuff

shavan grumble, grouse, mop, sulk

shede irrigation ditches

shegan sound of chopping or snapping or breaking

shegarun make (a) chopping etc. noise(s)

shekhan press, compress, crowd, crush

shele bitter

sheen furrow, groove

shemin scar, pockmark, dent, defect (not just in skin)

shere spring, source, early river, beginning

sheshe wretch, bum, creep, bastard, shit

shete crowded, frequent, numerous; often, frequently.

sheten waterfall

sheve belt

shibun complain, grumble, gripe, argue

shidin water, wet

-shie like to; want to, would like to

shilun vomit, retch

shilumen vomit

shinge skull

shinien different, of another kind; strange, foreign

shinue hull (of ship)

shisie crab

-sho away

shodze brine, salt-brine

shokan lime, limestone, chalk

shonke gasp, pant

shonkan gasp, pant

shonte problem, difficulty; difficult

shon turn over, change; (with -ie) become, turn, turn into

shovon carve

shuime (magical) charm

shuin love

shuin love, darling, dear, friend

shumene fort, fortification

shune breath

shunan breathe (in)

soshunan exhale

shuniun strangle, choke, throttle

shupe thing, matter, question, topic, concern

shuran block, prevent

shuure mild, gentle, tame

shuse symbols, characters, runes

shuthe plaster, mortar


tan one; (used occ. for keme) first

taben peel, strip, flay, tear (off)

taikan run (of quadrupeds)

tain spout, gush, spurt, spring or shoot out or up; flash, burst

taite spout, gush, spurt; flash, burst

takain eleven; eleventh

takalle wolf

talon (with -una) want

tamoe jaw

tanne shell, husk, rind

tarin show

tashame ladle, dipper

taue thumb, finger

taupe resin, gum

taave druid

te (3 anim. sg. and pl. nom. disjunctive nucleus.)

tean change, alter

teare change

teavan change

tepen star

tekan foot soldier

tekhalan scatter, dissipate, exhaust

tekhalavan scatter, dissipate, dwindle

tekhare hazelnuts

telen wash

tenge remote spot, isolated area, boondocks; remote, isolated

tente burst, flash, eclat

tepe carving, figurine, statuette

tephin mark, score, notch

tephin mark, score, notch

tetan rush, run, flow

tetren shatter, smash

-ti behind, after

ti (definite article inanimate nominative) the

-tia every now and then, here and there, off and on

tidon yellow; yellowish

-tie (3 anim. sg. pron. erg.) he, she; his, her

tiere sentry

-tieto (3 anim. sg. and pl. relative pron. erg.) who, that

tijin stare at

tikiete sister-in-law (applied to any female aralle of one's spouse)

tikhin pieces, fragments

tikhun left (opp. right)

tiksin cowardly, timid

-tio (portmanteau pron. 3 anim. sg. erg. + 3 inan. sg. absol.) she or he (v.t.) it

tioka quickly, soon

tioke quick, fast

-tioso (portmanteau pron. 3 anim. sg. erg. + 3 inan. pl. absol.) she or he (v.t.) them

tiran fall

tiranimme see imme

tiravatan drop

tirite how much?, how many?

-tisie (3 anim. pl. erg. pron.) they; their

-tisio (alternate portmanteau pron. 3 anim. pl. erg. + 3 inan. sg. absol.) they (v.t.) it

-tisioso (alternate portmanteau pron. 3 anim. pl. erg. + 3 inan. pl. absol.) they (v.t.) them

titionon germinate, sprout

tiure snow

tiuran snow

tiurin snowflake

tleke vault, dome

to (syntactic particle (nom/erg))

tohen ladder

token cling, stick (-sa on); stay

tolle wrong

tollan be wrong, be mistaken, err

tollin error, mistake

tomme (river)bank

toshe steep, abrupt, deep, severe

trepe hard

tuame mud, muck, mire

tube moment, second, instant

-tumi ? seem to; apparently

tungurin work on, busy oneself with, be engaged in, look into, study

turuke ruin

tuse shirt

tutuin jingle, clatter, chatter


ntairun continue

ntame long

ntamen length

ntaun beans

-nte (absol.) you; (poss.) your

ntechen pounce on, snatch

ntegen dry

nteleme sheep(s)

ntembe distant, far

ntete joke, prank, mischief

nteve hail

ntiape tail

ntiebe sleeping-mat; (river) bottom, (valley) floor

ntimie always

kuntimie still

ntiise high, lofty

-ntiten (aspect) along; still

ntiule shy, bashful

ntobokhon (poison) toad

ntophe broken, destroyed, ruined

nton know

ntomen knowledge

ntuere hunger

ntuerille hungry

ntuerikhan hunger, be hungry

ntukhe wasps, hornets

ntupe little, small

ntundzun (sexually) impotent

ntuven commerce, trade, business


thaban father, dad; fatherly, paternal

thabe neck

thaine food, fodder

thainatan feed, nourish

thaipe tin

thalle grapes

thalue captain

thaan teeth

thanakin jade

thanthie gecko

tharuen (a holiday)

thaan follow

thate bar (of door)

thaathe bread

-the (de-absolutive valency operator)

theame bare, nude

theate forehead

thegon marsh

thele young

theeme arrow

themmoovun history

thenge mist, fog (esp. over water)

thenun grasp, grab, take

-thiu must, have to

theore steel

theran fight

theroe battle, war

therre trance

thetsan pool, pond

thie half

thiembe carpenter

thigon cow

thike side

thikin squeeze, compress, pinch

thime hundred

thingon add

thionon swear, vow

thiipe beam, shaft

thirue pigtail, queue

thin belong to

thitsun bull

thiun man

thiun carry, bring

thoode empty, idle, vain

thookhe next

thomin dip, immerse

thonen call

thore bend, twist, crook

thoratan bend, twist

thovon heap, pile

thovovatan heap, pile up

thuan (over)skirt

thube chains

thubatan chain

thuilon know, be familiar with

thuinen kith (friends and neighbors)

thuite schlock; cheap

thukhire grief, sorrow

thuumin head

thunle saw

thunun hat, cap

thuriun climb

thun embrace


tsaarun harvest, yield

tsachan bell

tsaike badger

tsain mean, intend

tsaimen meaning, intention

tsakan beat, thrash, flog, pummel

tsalun hit (a target), guess (correctly)

tsamile (a) score, twenty

tsan dung

tsandzon run across, meet, happen upon

tsaphian teem, swarm

tsashe rotten smell; rotten, fetid, putrid

tsauron sigh, murmur

tsavan giant

tsadzan jump, leap

tse because; when; while

tsen eight; eighth

tsekain eighteen; eighteenth

tseden shake, rock

tsee none, nothing; no one, nobody; no, not a, (not) any

tseesin do like, imitate

-tseesi sort of, rather

tsekhe paint (for writing)

tselan turn around

tselle fallow, unplanted land

tsemen proclaim, announce

tsenke cataract (in the eye)

tsepen stake, pole, picket

tsianlan moan, sob, wail

tsianlan plaintive, mournful

tsikajan pirate, corsair, privateer, buccaneer

tsikuin rage, fury, madness

tsikuinille raging, furious, mad

tsimie mold

tsiin sassafras

tsindun share

-tsine (interrog. anim. pron. erg.) who?

tsitin basket

tsitson forks

tsiusun disclose, reveal, divulge

tsivete periwinkle (flower)

tsoche broken terrain, precipitous terrain; (of terrain) broken, precipitous

tsoen plenty, abundance

tsoenille plentiful, abundant

tsolen fierce, ferocious, vicious, mean; (adverbially) very (of a negative attribute)

tsonde crazy, mad, upset

tsoone toil, trouble, hardship

tsoonille toilsome, difficult, troublesome

tsoope dough, paste

tsotamin creep, sneak

tsoven drift

tsodze tortillas

tsuelan measure

tsuire ribbons

tsukhe (meat) pies

tsula there

tsu(l)- (deictic II) there, that (there)

tsuluume mercury

tsurun spit, spurt, spark, rush, streak, zoom

tsuthan upset, overturn


uakue lentils

uante coals

uaphun stem, stalk

uare heart

uarille emotion(al)

uan do, make

uanin act, action, thing

uarun roast, fry

uatsan pull up (roots etc.), dig up; expose, reveal (esp. a bad thing)

uauin tremor, shake

uauinan tremble, quiver, shake

uuben skill

ubon cook

uudran cloak

ueare hall

uegain skillet

uele a few

uene torrent

uenlen turn, bend

uethe means

ugale harvest

uhun insert

uiche barley

uide thunderclap

uidere thunder; thundering; marvellous, smashing

uikie evil deed; evil

uiku minnows, tadpoles, polliwogs

uilike pandore (3-string lute)

uinen child

uire little, not much

uin haul, drag, pull

uivon blanket

ukehu comet

uukin wake up

uukian wake up

ukhun cat

ukhununge female cat

ukhudzine male cat, tomcat

ule big

uunle shore, edge

ulkiashe Winter

ullere year

ullun act, behave

ulondze bag, satchel

ulume march, province, county

ulumon (provincial) peddler, dealer, trader

umain haze, mist, uncertainty

ume so, such

umidze skin

umne fruit(s)

uniue quartz

unkun split (in two), separate

unlute right, correct

unlutan be right, be correct

umbe prison, jail

umese yoke; joined?

unge female (animal); female (of animals only, or pejoratively of women)

-unge (appositive deriv. sfx. forming cpd. ns.), (e.g.):




unthe false

Untuakan (the Tall God)

uokon observe, notice

uone flies

uophe kidney

uotu bees

upan chant

uphalin be worth

ure fire

uratan light, set on fire

urhuen dragon

urun speak, exclaim

uusan course (of river)

utrin sign

utse machine, device

uvan take

udze much, many, a lot (of)

udzi witch

udziimen witchcraft

udzuule prophecy, divining


va (hortative modal postvb.) let etc.

vachan sell

vataino (polite hortative modal postvb.) please

vahan faint

vaisen bring forth, introduce; introduced thing or person; introduction; introducer

vaite same (one)

vaiun kiss

vaiun kiss

vaken ... for the first time

vakha upwind

valakan gasp, pant

vale night

kavale last night

kuvale tonight

vanden seem

vanite squall, gale, storm

vapin die, cube

vare back

vashen loose, flimsy, tenuous

-(v)ata (causative) make

vatun draw, pull

vathin truth; true

vaulun call, make a characteristic sound: (wind) rush, (brook) babble, etc. (generally a distant or hushed sound) ; murmur; beckon (from afar), (with -ma) cause longing; call, characteristic sound; murmur; beckoning (from afar)

vautin clan, lineage

-ve I; my

ve (num. inan. proclitic) two

vekain twelve; twelfth

venondon forty; fortieth

vedeene parent

vedon bear, give birth to

vedovan be born

vedo(va)n birth

vee all

vekue chest

vekhe slender

velenin drink up, throw back

velun flatter, cajole

(-n|v)en (deriv. sfx. personal agent) -er

ven (num. inan. disj.) two; two, a couple: [Emonotie ven su ni chantiono 'She found a couple in the box']; vesa (num. inan. ord.) second

vene illusion, apparition, vision

venian spill, pour

venje day

kavenje yesterday

kuvenje today

seetavenje midday, noon

kaseetavenje yesterday noon

kuseetavenje this noon, today noon

(-n|v)ese (abstract nominalizer) -ing etc.

vese otter

veetin nets

vetse color, hue

vetsille colorful

vidde muscles

vidue slope

vie(l)- (pseudo-deictic) all, every, each

viele cave, cavern

vieshe scraps, bits, pieces

vikie almost, nearly

vikhian blink, wink

-vikho try to

vilan meet, encounter

vinde (var. of vinge)

vinge loan

vingan borrow

vingatan loan

vinne clan, tribe

-vio (portmanteau pron. 1 sg. erg. + 3 inan. sg. absol.) I ... it

-vioso (portmanteau pron. 1 sg. erg. + 3 inan. pl. absol.) I ... them

viote sound, noise

viotere noise, clamor; loud, noisy

eoviotere clamor, din, cacophony, dissonance; clamorous, cacophonous, dissonant

viren (start to) go

virun ornamentation, adornment, decoration

visa together

-vise together

vise elf

-vito in

vitun bits, pieces

vithe frail, broken, feeble, vain

viven hetaera

-(v)o (past definite tense) -ed etc.

von say, tell

vobelle sulfur

voden lean

voden statement, account, sentence

vogen body

vokon meeting, assembly

vokhe trough

vollan road, way

vombe tube, pipe

vome rough, harsh

vomen warm breeze; warm

vonare twist, curl

vonoope angry, agitated, turbulent, excited

voothe rich, abundant

vopoion Northeast

vore pen, corral, pigsty

voro then, and then, afterwards, next

vosome garnet

voton glimpse

votsen crest (of hill)

vovena though, even if

vodzome wild, savage

vuena (var. of vovena)

vuin nine; ninth

vuide new (replaces oede)

vuikain nineteen; nineteenth

-vuinu think about, consider; maybe

-vuite (2 defer. sg. pron. erg.) You; Your

vukha (for) a little while

vullan hex, jinx

vulun slide, slip

vumin blow

vundie deaf

vun kill

vuuse blood

vuusan bleed

vuusille bloody

vuthe termites

Last modified Saturday, April 24, 2004 at 16:44:42 GMT -0500